President Abraham Lincoln And Secession
After won the , seven Southern states from the union and set up a newly formed sovereign state, the , on February 8, 1861. It attacked , a U.S. Army fort in South Carolina, thus igniting the war. When Lincoln called for troops to suppress the Confederacy in April 1861, four more states seceded and joined the Confederacy. A few of the “” did not secede and became known as the these were Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri.
During the war, the northwestern portion of Virginia seceded from the Confederacy. and became the new Union state of . West Virginia is usually associated with the .
The Civil War began April 12, 1861, when in . In response, Lincoln called on the states to send troops to recapture forts, protect the capital, and “preserve the Union,” which in his view still existed intact despite the actions of the seceding states. The two armies had their first major clash at the , which proved to both sides that the war would be much longer and bloodier than originally anticipated.
In the , the was relatively successful, with major battles, such as and along with gunboat dominance of navigable rivers producing strategic Union victories and destroying major Confederate operations.
According to historian , the Civil War had a major long-term impact on the United States in terms of developing its leadership potential and metaphorically moving the country beyond the adolescent stage:
KKK and the rise of Jim Crow laws
Chapter 1: The War For The Black Hills
A force of several thousand Native Americans fights to save the sacred Black Hills. They win a major battle by destroying General Custer’s army at the Little Bighorn, but the government uses the battle as justification for taking the Black Hills. They also send more troops to make most of the Native Americans surrender. Sitting Bull and some of his people escape to Canada.
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‘the Only Good Indians I Ever Saw Were Dead’
Even though, 40 years after this book was first published, we are now familiar with the events that took place in the American mid-West in the nineteenth century, listening to this was both shocking and saddening.It is one long tale of continually broken treaties, of moving the native Americans out of their homelands to poor land, and then on to even worse land, again and again, where they would be unable to sustain themselves and become dependent on government handouts from corrupt agents. Any who didn’t want to move would just be annihilated without compunction or conscience. There were a few brave stands by the native Americans along the ways, temporary victories, but these just proved to be short lived stays of execution.Dee Brown’s telling of the tale is well-researched, beautifully written and the narration by Grover Gardener is excellent. Despite the anger and sadness that the book provokes I found it compelling and hard to stop listening.I note amongst the reviews by our American cousins that some readers seem genuinely surprised by learning of these events in their country’s past but then I guess that I didn’t learn much about the sordid history and atrocities in Britain’s colonial past when I was at school either.
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Great Depression And The New Deal
During the 1920s, the nation enjoyed widespread prosperity, albeit with a weakness in agriculture. A financial bubble was fueled by an inflated , which later led to the on October 29, 1929. This, along with , triggered a worldwide known as the . During this time, the United States experienced as prices fell, unemployment soared from 3% in 1929 to 25% in 1933, farm prices fell by half, and manufacturing output plunged by one-third.
In 1932, presidential nominee promised “a for the American people”, coining the enduring label for his domestic policies. The result was a series of permanent reform programs including Relief for the unemployed, assistance for the elderly, jobs for young men, social security, unemployment insurance, public housing, bankruptcy insurance, farm subsidies, and regulation of financial securities.
State governments added new programs as well and introduced the sales tax to pay for them. Ideologically the revolution established and kept the Democrats in power in Washington almost continuously for three decades thanks to the of ethnic whites, blacks, blue-collar workers, labor unions, and white Southerners. It provided relief to the long-term unemployed through numerous programs, such as the and for young men, the . Large scale spending projects designed to provide private sector construction jobs and rebuild the infrastructure were under the purview of the .
Chapter 1: The Flight Of The Nez Percs
The Nez Percés are told to give up their land and report to a reservation. Young Joseph advocates peace but is forced to fight when some of his men kill white settlers. The Nez Percés try to flee to Canada to join Sitting Bull, and some make it. However, after a surprise attack by the Army, most of Chief Joseph’s people surrender and are sent to Indian Territory.
A Classic In Every Sense Of The Word
Dee Brown has written some other quality books, but he would deserve a reputation as one of the more readable historians on America’s 19th century even if he had never written another word. A true classic, the perspective of which was long overdue when it appeared, this book was as moving for me this year – expertly narrated by Grover Gardner – as it was years ago when I first read it for myself. The shameful treatment of native-American tribes by officials of the federal government at the highest levels, and by the military, should be impossible for any decent person to defend – if considered from the native side. No one has ever presented that side as well as Brown. His research is wide-ranging and his writing is effective. This book is a true paradigm-shifter. No one with an interest in U.S. history should fail to read or hear it.
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Many Nights Sleep Lost Due To Great Book
What made the experience of listening to Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee the most enjoyable?
40 years after being written, it is still very relavant, and helpful to gain a historical perspective that is not commonly discussed in the mainstream. The book was well written, well read, and very specific, rather than having a pan-American Indian style of generalizing.
Who was your favorite character and why?
This book is full of many real life heroes, why pick only one.
Which character as performed by Grover Gardner was your favorite?
Was there a moment in the book that particularly moved you?
Any additional comments?
I have had this book on my wish list of reads for years, and even bought a couple copies but never got around to it , but thanks to it being available on audiobook, I have finally listened to it, and was not dissapointed at all. I lost many nights sleep due to not being able to “put it down” . I have no doubt that I will re-read/listen to this book a few more times in my life.
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Native American Mascots In Sports
American Indian activists in the United States and Canada have criticized the use of Native American in sports, as perpetuating stereotypes. This is considered .There has been a steady decline in the number of secondary school and college teams using such names, images, and mascots. Some tribal team names have been approved by the tribe in question, such as the ‘s approving use of their name for the teams of .Among professional teams, the ‘s discontinued use of Native American-themed logos in 1971. The ‘s , formerly the , changed their name in 2020, as is considered to be a racial slur.
‘s were formerly known as the . Their use of a caricature called faced protest for decades. Starting in 2019, Chief Wahoo ceased to be a logo for Cleveland Indians, though Chief Wahoo merchandise could still be sold in the Cleveland-area. On December 13, 2020, The New York Times reported that Cleveland would be officially changing their name. On November 19, 2021, the team officially became the .
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Chapter : The Long Walk Of The Navahos
The government wants Navaho land for settlements and mining, so the U.S. Army kills or displaces all Mescalero Apaches and Navahos in the region. Many Navahos die when they are forced to live at the Bosque Redondo reservation. Ultimately, the Navahos sign a peace treaty and are allowed to return to what is left of their land.
Society Language And Culture
The culture of Pre-Columbian North America is usually defined by the concept of the culture area, namely a geographical region where shared cultural traits occur. The northwest culture area, for example, shared common traits such as salmon fishing, woodworking, and large villages or towns and a hierarchical social structure. Ethnographers generally into ten cultural areas based on geographical region.
Though cultural features, language, clothing, and customs vary enormously from one tribe to another, there are certain elements which are encountered frequently and shared by many tribes. Early European American scholars described the Native Americans as having a society dominated by .
European colonization of the Americas had a major impact on Native American cultures through what is known as the , also known as the Columbian interchange, which was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the and Eurasia in the 15th and 16th centuries, following ‘s . The Columbian exchange generally had a destructive impact on Native American cultures through disease, and a ‘clash of cultures’, whereby European values of private land ownership, the family, and division of labor, led to conflict, appropriation of traditional communal lands and changed how the Indigenous tribes practiced slavery.
tribes crafted seafaring 40â50 feet long for fishing.
The King of the Seas in the Hands of the Makahs
Topics For Further Study
- On a current map of the United States, plot all of the existing Native-American reservations. For each one, include a brief description of when and how it was created, what tribes live there, and the population size at the time it was founded and at the time of the 2000 Census.
- Research the various ways that Native-American language and culture have been incorporated into American language and culture since the 1860s. Find one area of the United States that has been particularly influenced by Native Americans, and write a short, modern-day profile of this region and its people.
- Research the prehistory of the Americas, and discuss how Native Americans first came to North America. Imagine that you are one of these early Native Americans. Write a journal entry that describes your typical day in these prehistoric times, using your research to support your writing.
- Research what life is like on a Native-American reservation today. Outline the current problems faced by Native Americans on reservations, research any potential courses of action that are being taken, and propose your own solutions to these problems.
Native American And African Relations
African and Native Americans have interacted for centuries. The earliest record of Native American and African contact occurred in April 1502, when Spanish colonists transported the first Africans to to serve as slaves.
Sometimes Native Americans resented the presence of African Americans. The “Catawaba tribe in 1752 showed great anger and bitter resentment when an African American came among them as a trader”. To gain favor with Europeans, the Cherokee exhibited the strongest color prejudice of all Native Americans. Because of European fears of a unified revolt of Native Americans and African Americans, the colonists tried to encourage hostility between the ethnic groups: “Whites sought to convince Native Americans that African Americans worked against their best interests.” In 1751, South Carolina law stated:
The carrying of Negroes among the Indians has all along been thought detrimental, as an intimacy ought to be avoided.
In addition, in 1758 the governor of South Carolina James Glen wrote:
it has always been the policy of this government to create an aversion in them to Negroes.
Europeans considered both races inferior and made efforts to make both Native Americans and Africans enemies. Native Americans were rewarded if they returned escaped slaves, and African Americans were rewarded for fighting in the late 19th-century .
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Chapter 1: The Utes Must Go
Through the skills of a chief, Ouray the Arrow, the Utes successfully retain one rich portion of their land as a reservation. A new agent, Nathan C. Meeker, tries to convert the Utes to his religion. His efforts instigate a battle between the Utes and the Army. The local government uses the incident as justification for taking the rest of the Ute land.
Vietnam And The My Lai Massacre
When Brown first published Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee in 1970, the United States was engaged in an undeclared war in Vietnam, and the U.S. public was inclined to revisit the country’s guilt over the past treatment of Native Americans. The parallels between the United States-sponsored massacre of Native Americans in the 1800s and the United States’ actions in Vietnam in the late 1960s and early 1970s were not lost on readers of Brown’s book. This insight was especially available in 1970, when twenty-five U.S. Army officers and enlisted men were indicted for the 1968 massacre of hundreds of civilians in the South Vietnamese village of My Lai. Despite Army efforts to cover up the incident, a few concerned soldiers who were either at or near My Lai helped bring it to light, and the story was quickly picked up by the national media. Only a few men were actually tried for their part in the massacre, and only oneLieutenant William Calleywas found guilty. Calley was sentenced to a lifetime of hard labor. However, three years later, President Nixon intervened and secured Calley’s parole. Shortly after this incident, polls indicated that, for the first time since the war began, a majority of Americans opposed the United States involvement in Vietnam.
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Chapter : Powder River Invasion
The Cheyennes learn that soldiers are building a fort in the Powder River country. A Cheyenne warrior tries to warn some Arapahos of coming soldiers, but they do not believe him, and their village is destroyed by one military column. A group of Sioux chase the half-starved, frozen soldiers of two other military columns and attempt to beat them in battle but are overpowered.
Increasing Demand For Slave Labor
Slaves Waiting for Sale: Richmond, Virginia
During the first two decades after the Revolutionary War, there were dramatic changes in the status of slavery among the states and an increase in the number of . Inspired by revolutionary ideals of the equality of men and influenced by their lesser economic reliance on slavery, northern states abolished slavery.
States of the made easier, resulting in an increase in the proportion of in the Upper South from less than one percent in 1792 to more than 10 percent by 1810. By that date, a total of 13.5 percent of all blacks in the United States were free. After that date, with the demand for slaves on the rise because of the Deep South’s expanding cotton cultivation, the number of manumissions declined sharply and an internal U.S. slave trade became an important source of wealth for many planters and traders.
In 1807, Congress severed the U.S.’s involvement with the .
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Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee
|New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston|
|LC Class||E81 .B75 1971|
Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West is a 1970 non-fiction book by American writer Dee Brown that covers the history of Native Americans in the American West in the late nineteenth century. The book expresses details of the history of American expansionism from a point of view that is critical of its effects on the Native Americans. Brown describes Native Americans’ displacement through forced relocations and years of warfare waged by the United States federal government. The government’s dealings are portrayed as a continuing effort to destroy the culture, religion, and way of life of Native American peoples.Helen Hunt Jackson‘s 1881 book A Century of Dishonor is often considered a nineteenth-century precursor to Dee Brown’s book.