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What Does Knee Replacement Surgery Involve

How Does The Patient Continue To Improve As An Outpatient After Discharge From The Hospital What Are Recommended Exercises

What is Knee Replacement Surgery and what does it involve?

For an optimal outcome after total knee replacement surgery, it is important for patients to continue in an outpatient physical-therapy program along with home exercises during the healing process. Patients will be asked to continue exercising the muscles around the replaced joint to prevent scarring and maintain muscle strength for the purposes of joint stability. These exercises after surgery can reduce recovery time and lead to optimal strength and stability.

The wound will be monitored by the surgeon and his/her staff for healing. Patients also should watch for warning signs of infection, including abnormal redness, increasing warmth, swelling, or unusual pain. It is important to report any injury to the joint to the doctor immediately.

Future activities are generally limited to those that do not risk injuring the replaced joint. Sports that involve running or contact are avoided, in favor of leisure sports, such as golf, and swimming. Swimming is the ideal form of exercise, since the sport improves muscle strength and endurance without exerting any pressure or stress on the replaced joint.

Patients with joint replacements should alert their doctors and dentists that they have an artificial joint. These joints are at risk for infection by bacteria introduced by any invasive procedures such as surgery, dental or gum procedures, urological and endoscopic procedures, as well as from infections elsewhere in the body.

Should I Have Knee Replacement Surgery

You might be a candidate for knee replacement surgery when other treatments no longer relieve severe pain and loss of function. Joint pain and immobility usually occur when the cartilage that protects and cushions the joints wears down. When this happens bones rub directly against each other, causing further damage and pain.

Not everyone is a candidate for knee replacement surgery. Your overall health is taken into account. If you have a history of other health problems such as heart attack, stroke or diabetes, surgery might not be right for you.

Who Is Offered Knee Replacement Surgery

A knee replacement is major surgery, so is normally only recommended if other treatments, such as physiotherapy or steroid injections, have not reduced pain or improved mobility.

You may be offered knee replacement surgery if:

  • you have severe pain, swelling and stiffness in your knee joint and your mobility is reduced
  • your knee pain is so severe that it interferes with your quality of life and sleep
  • everyday tasks, such as shopping or getting out of the bath, are difficult or impossible
  • you’re feeling depressed because of the pain and lack of mobility
  • you cannot work or have a social life

You’ll also need to be well enough to cope with both a major operation and the rehabilitation afterwards.

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Start Using The Knee Early

Recovery and rehabilitation must start shortly after you awake from surgery. On the first day, you need to start standing up and walking with an assistive device, like a walker or crutches, with the aid of a physical therapist. Use your artificial knee as soon as you can. Your therapist will guide you through exercises that will increase the strength of your muscles, as well as help you get in and out of bed.

Ial Knee Replacement Overview

Do I Need a Full or Partial Knee Replacement Surgery ...

A is also known as unicompartmental knee arthroplasty or unicondylar knee arthroplasty. In this surgery, damaged cartilage and bone are removed and replaced only in one diseased compartment of the knee. This differs from a total knee replacement, in which bone and cartilage from the entire joint are replaced.

Partial knee replacement is suitable for people who experience arthritis only in one compartment of the knee joint, rather than throughout the joint. It can also provide relief from pain and stiffness in some people who have medical conditions that make them poor candidates for total knee replacement surgery.

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How Long Will The New Knee Joint Last

For 8090% of people who have total knee replacement, the new joint should last about 20 years, and it may well last longer.

If you’ve had a partial knee replacement, you’re more likely to need a repeat operation about 1 person in 10 needs further surgery after 10 years.

The chances of needing another operation is greater if you’re overweight and/or involved in heavy manual work.

What Happens During Total Knee Replacement Surgery

On the day of your total knee replacement surgery you be admitted to hospital. You will go through various pre-op checks and when it’s your turn, you’ll be taken down to theatre.

Total knee replacement surgery is usually carried out with either:

  • General Anaesthetic: you are put to sleep for the duration of the operation
  • Spinal Anaesthetic: numbs the body below the waist and you are also given medicine to make you sleepy

A vertical incision is made on the front of the knee, usually about 8-10 inches long. The kneecap is moved to the side to expose the joint. The surgeon removes the damaged bone and cartilage.

In most cases the anterior cruciate ligament is removed and often the posterior cruciate ligament is too. The collateral ligaments are preserved.

The bones are shaped to fit the new knee implants, which are made up of four components:

  • Femoral Component: this curves around the bottom end of the femur and has a groove in the center for the kneecap that mimics the trochlear groove. This allows the kneecap to glide smoothly and freely up and down as the knee moves.
  • Tibial Component: this flat platform sits on top of the tibia and usually has a metal stem that inserts down the shin bone to hold the component firmly in place
  • Plastic Spacer: the metal components are separated by a plastic spacer to allow smooth movement and to prevent wear and tear of the prosthesis
  • Total knee replacement surgery takes about 2 hours.

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    Care After The Operation

    Please give some thought as to how you will be looked after once you have had the operation, well in advance. Most people like to be independent, but you are going to need support with day-to-day activities for a while. If you have an able-bodied partner, this might fall to them, but otherwise you may need a friend or relative to come to stay with you for a while. Some people may arrange to stay in a care home until they have their mobility and independence back.

    After Knee Replacement Surgery

    What does surgery for knee replacement involve?

    Most patients return directly home after total knee replacement surgery, while some go to a rehabilitation hospital for more physical therapy. As with other joint surgeries, patients must do hourly exercises to strengthen the joint and regain mobility. Initial recovery after a total knee replacement takes about six to eight weeks, and then often continues for a full year.

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    Who Needs Knee Revision Surgery

    A knee revision may be necessary for anyone whose prosthetic knee implant fails due to injury or wear, or who gets an infection in the area around implant.

    In elderly people who have a knee replacement, the artificial knee implants may last for life. But in younger patients, especially those who maintain an active lifestyle, knee prostheses may eventually fail, requiring a second replacement later in life.

    The most common reasons people for knee revision are:

    • Infection: The risk of infection from a total knee replacement is less than 1%, but when infections do occur, a knee revision of one kind or another is necessary.
    • Instability: This occurs when the soft tissues around the knee are unable to provide the stability necessary for adequate function while standing or walking.
    • Stiffness: In some patients, excessive scar tissue may build up around the knee and prevents the joint from moving fully.
    • Wear and tear: This can include loosening or breakage of prosthesis components due to friction over time.

    Rapid Recovery For Total Knee Replacement

    Typically, patients can expect to experience some swelling and pain after undergoing knee replacement surgery. Dr. Sculco is dedicated to improving your recovery by limiting post-surgical pain and other side effects. Over the years, he has been involved with extensive research on topics including less invasive surgical techniques, anesthesia use, anti-inflammatory medications, and specific instruments used during the procedure. This research has led Dr. Sculco to a fine-tuned recovery approach that has been proven to decrease inflammation and pain following surgery, as well as accelerate the bodys healing process so patients can get back to doing what they love faster. Learn more about Dr. Sculcos recovery approach by visiting our Rapid Recovery page.

    If youre suffering from lowered range of motion and pain in your knee joint, the first step to getting back to your normal life quickly is scheduling an evaluation with an experienced orthopedic surgeon. Dr. Peter K. Sculco provides customized treatment plans and personalized care paired with world-class orthopedic training. Call today to request an appointment.

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    How To Prepare For Knee Replacement

    There are certain steps that can improve your recovery time and results. It is important to follow your knee replacement surgeonâs instructions both before and after surgery, as well as that of your rehabilitation therapistâs recommendations. Learn more about reparing for knee replacement by reading .

    Who Might Need A Knee Replacement

    Why do we need a Knee Replacement Surgery?  Dr. Dhananjay ...

    Knee surgery may be suitable for patients who experience:

    • Severe knee pain or stiffness that prevents them from carrying out everyday tasks and activities, such as walking, going upstairs, getting in and out of cars, getting up from a chair
    • Moderate but continuous knee pain that continues while sleeping or resting
    • Chronic knee inflammation and swelling that does not improve after taking medications or resting
    • Knee deformity, where there is a noticeable arch on the inside or outside of the knee
    • Depression, resulting from an inability to carry out daily or social activities

    If the other available treatment options have not worked, surgery may be the best option.

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    Knee Exercises After Knee Replacement Surgery

    Mr.Rajaratnam focuses on achieving excellent function after knee replacement surgery. The keys for achieving full functional recovery are accelerated rehabilitation and targeted physiotherapy.

    The surgeon, anaesthetist, surgical care practitioners, physiotherapists and dedicated nurses work as a team to make patients comfortable post surgery.

    Generally you will be able to move your knee as early as 30 minutes following joint replacement surgery.

    Patients are encouraged to walk with our highly trained physiotherapists and nurses within 3-4 hours.

    Joint replacement patients usually remain in hospital for 2-3 days and will have safely walked up and down stairs before being discharged home.

    Over the next 2 weeks, achieving an excellent range of movement in the knee is key, and you will be taught how to bend and straighten your knee in order to achieve this.

    You will be seen 2 weeks post surgery for a follow up appointment.

    Once the wound has healed and a full range of movement has been achieved, it is important to strengthen the muscles around the knee.

    The aim of the exercises is to increase muscle tone around the new knee joint.

    We are happy to recommend a specialist knee physiotherapist who will arrange to see you as an outpatient, oversee your strengthening programme and monitor your progress over the next few weeks.

    If you already have a good physiotherapist, we are happy to work collaboratively with him/her during your rehabilitation.

    Recovering From Knee Replacement Surgery

    You’ll usually be in hospital for 3 to 5 days, but recovery times can vary.

    Once you’re able to be discharged, your hospital will give you advice about looking after your knee at home. You’ll need to use a frame or crutches at first and a physiotherapist will teach you exercises to help strengthen your knee.

    Most people can stop using walking aids around 6 weeks after surgery, and start driving after 6 to 8 weeks.

    Full recovery can take up to 2 years as scar tissue heals and your muscles are restored by exercise. A very small amount of people will continue to have some pain after 2 years.

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    Possible Benefits Of Total Knee Replacement Surgery

    Regardless of whether a traditional total knee replacement or a minimally-invasive partial knee replacement is performed the goals and possible benefits are the same: relief of pain and restoration of function.

    The large majority of total knee replacement patients experience substantial or complete relief of pain once they have recovered from the procedure. The large majority walk without a limp and most dont require a cane, even if they used one before the surgery. It is quite likely that you know someone with a knee replacement who walks so well that you dont know he even had surgery!

    Frequently the stiffness from arthritis is also relieved by the surgery. Very often the distance one can walk will improve as well because of diminished pain and stiffness. The enjoyment of reasonable recreational activities such as golf, dancing, traveling, and swimming almost always improves following total knee replacement.

    Implanting The Tibial Component

    Knee Replacement – What do the injections involve?

    The bottom portion of the implant, called the tibial tray, is fitted to the tibia and secured into place using bone cement. Once the tray is in place, the surgeon will snap in a polyethylene insert to sit between the tibial tray and the femoral component, and act as a kind of buffer. This insert will provide support for your body as you bend and flex your knee.

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    Minimally Invasive Total Knee Replacement

    Some medical centers perform minimally invasive surgery for a total knee replacement, also called min-incision joint replacement.

    This surgery allows surgeons to cut less muscle and tissue, which leads to less blood loss, increased range of motion and a shorter hospital stay. Many patients go home the same day and the recovery process is usually much quicker than traditional total knee surgery.

    However, minimally invasive knee replacement is not for everyone. In general, the best candidates for this kind of surgery are younger and in better health. Older patients, those who are overweight or patients who have undergone knee surgeries in the past may be less suitable for minimal incision procedures.

    Because it uses a much smaller incision, minimally invasive knee replacements have a higher risk for poor implant placement compared to traditional total knee surgery. Other common complications include nerve and artery injuries, wound healing problems and infection.

    Only specialized medical centers typically offer this surgical option. An orthopaedic surgeon should explain the complete process, the benefits and the potential risks to help the patient decide which surgical option is the best fit.

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    What Does Total Knee Replacement Involve

    Each total knee replacement procedure is tailored to the individual needs of the patient and may vary from case to case. The general steps involved with a total knee arthroplasty include:

    • Administering regional anesthesia and a sedative so you are comfortable throughout surgery
    • Making an incision along the front of the knee to access the knee joint
    • Removing damaged cartilage and bone from the knee joint and preparing the area for the implant
    • Securing the components of the knee implant into their proper placement
    • Fitting the new components together and closing the incision

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    Do You Have To Come To The Hospital For Total Knee Replacement Surgery

    Urquhart: Knee replacements in healthy patients do not require a hospital stay. In fact, we now offer the surgery at the Brighton Center for Specialty Care, one of our outpatient specialty clinics.

    Patients have the surgery performed in one of the operating rooms at the facility and then are moved into a recovery area where they are monitored and work with physical therapy to be safe to go home. The center has the ability and staffing to monitor patients overnight, if needed. Then the patient is able to finish their recovery at home.

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    What Are Possible Side Effects Of The Surgery

    : Knee Replacement Surgery India

    Urquhart: All surgeries have a risk of complications. Less than 1% of healthy patients undergoing any type of surgery can experience a cardiovascular event, such as a heart attack or stroke. About 0.5% of knee replacement surgery patients develop an infection.

    But an important side effect or outcome to talk about is this buyers remorse idea I brought up earlier. About 15 to 20% of patients that undergo total knee replacement surgery have buyers remorse because they still experience discomfort, clicking or a sensation of instability in their knee, making them regret having the procedure. That is exactly why we consider non-surgical options first and remind patients that they should not make the decision to have surgery without careful consideration.

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    How Your New Knee Is Different

    Improvement of knee motion is a goal of total knee replacement, but restoration of full motion is uncommon. The motion of your knee replacement after surgery can be predicted by the range of motion you have in your knee before surgery. Most patients can expect to be able to almost fully straighten the replaced knee and to bend the knee sufficiently to climb stairs and get in and out of a car. Kneeling is sometimes uncomfortable, but it is not harmful.

    Most people feel some numbness in the skin around your incision. You also may feel some stiffness, particularly with excessive bending activities.

    Most people also feel or hear some clicking of the metal and plastic with knee bending or walking. This is a normal. These differences often diminish with time and most patients find them to be tolerable when compared with the pain and limited function they experienced prior to surgery.

    Your new knee may activate metal detectors required for security in airports and some buildings. Tell the security agent about your knee replacement if the alarm is activated.


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