Can Osteoarthritis Be Prevented
You can reduce your risk of developing osteoarthritis by avoiding significant damage or overuse of a joint. Maintaining a healthy weight will make osteoarthritis easier to manage if it develops in a weight-bearing joint, such as the knees, hips or feet.
Be careful of any product or treatment that claims to prevent osteoarthritis completely check with your doctor or pharmacist before taking any medication or supplement.
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Family History Of Arthritis
To an extent, genetics play a small role in a persons risk of developing knee arthritis. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says that knee arthritis occurs more often in people whose relatives have it as well. Kapoor says the genetic risk is stronger if it comes from the mothers side of the family. Additionally, the CDC says there seems to be a link between knee osteoarthritis and having a family member with osteoarthritis of the hand.
What Types Of Lifestyle Changes Can Help With Rheumatoid Arthritis
Having a lifelong illness like rheumatoid arthritis may make you feel like you dont have much control over your quality of life. While there are aspects of RA that you cant control, there are things you can do to help you feel the best that you can.
Such lifestyle changes include:
When your joints are inflamed, the risk of injury to your joints and nearby soft tissue structures is high. This is why you need to rest your inflamed joints. But its still important for you to exercise. Maintaining a good range of motion in your joints and good fitness overall are important in coping with RA.
Pain and stiffness can slow you down. Some people with rheumatoid arthritis become inactive. But inactivity can lead to a loss of joint motion and loss of muscle strength. These, in turn, decrease joint stability and increase pain and fatigue.
Regular exercise can help prevent and reverse these effects. You might want to start by seeing a physical or occupational therapist for advice about how to exercise safely. Beneficial workouts include:
- Range-of-motion exercises to preserve and restore joint motion.
- Exercises to increase strength.
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Knee Osteoarthritis High Risk Groups
Generally, patients with knee osteoarthritis tend to be aged 50 and above, with females more prone to the condition than males due to hormonal as well as musculoskeletal factors. Additionally, there is currently an emerging trend of patients experiencing knee osteoarthritis at younger ages than ever, which places them at risk of developing early onset osteoarthritis. The following groups fall into this category: patients who have previously suffered a knee injury patients who have an unhealthy diet that has resulted in them becoming overweight or obese, thus placing greater strain on the knee joint or patients with underlying conditions that cause arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis or gout, as these disorders gradually wear away at the joint surface until the knee becomes severely swollen and eventually seizes up altogether.
Ligament Injury Of The Knee
Trauma can cause injury to the ligaments on the inner portion of the knee , the outer portion of the knee , or within the knee . Injuries to these areas are noticed as immediate pain, but are sometimes difficult to localize. Usually, a collateral ligament injury is felt on the inner or outer portions of the knee. A collateral ligament injury is often associated with local tenderness over the area of the ligament involved. A cruciate ligament injury is felt deep within the knee. It is sometimes noticed with a popping sensation with the initial trauma. A ligament injury to the knee is usually painful at rest and may be swollen and warm. The pain is usually worsened by bending the knee, putting weight on the knee, or walking. The severity of the injury can vary from mild to severe . Patients can have more than one area injured in a single traumatic event.
Ligament injuries are initially treated with ice packs and immobilization, with rest and elevation. At first, it is generally recommended to avoid bearing weight on the injured joint and crutches may be required for walking. Some patients are placed in splints or braces to immobilize the joint to decrease pain and promote healing. Arthroscopic or open surgery may be necessary to repair severe injuries.
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What Causes Arthritis In The Knee
All kinds of arthritis are characterized by wear and tear of the cartilage followed by a reduction in the joint space.
Three types of arthritis affect the knee mainly:
- Osteoarthritis : This type of arthritis is also known as degenerative joint disease, primary OA, wear-and-tear arthritis, or age-related arthritis. It is a leading cause of disability in the United States and worldwide. Though more common in older people, it can affect young people, including children as well.
- Rheumatoid arthritis : This is an autoimmune and chronic kind of arthritis that affects multiple joints in the body. Autoimmune means the body attacks its own healthy cells. Over time, the inflammation causes degeneration of cartilage along with the softening of the bone.
- Posttraumatic arthritis: This kind of arthritis is preceded by a traumatic event that impacts the knee joint. The injury damages the knee and arthritis develops after a few to several years in the knee joint.
Factors that increase your risk for developing osteoarthritis include:
What Causes Rheumatoid Arthritis
The exact cause of rheumatoid arthritis is unknown. Researchers think its caused by a combination of genetics, hormones and environmental factors.
Normally, your immune system protects your body from disease. With rheumatoid arthritis, something triggers your immune system to attack your joints. An infection, smoking or physical or emotional stress may be triggering.
Is rheumatoid arthritis genetic?
Scientists have studied many genes as potential risk factors for RA. Certain genetic variations and non-genetic factors contribute to your risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis. Non-genetic factors include sex and exposure to irritants and pollutants.
People born with variations in the human leukocyte antigen genes are more likely to develop rheumatoid arthritis. HLA genes help your immune system tell the difference between proteins your body makes and proteins from invaders like viruses and bacteria.
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What Are The Treatment Options For Osteoarthritis
It is important to note that there is no medicinal cure for osteoarthritis. Treatment for osteoarthritis addresses the symptoms such as pain and limited movement. If you are experiencing the early warning signs of osteoarthritis, you may be able to follow a non-surgical treatment path. Non-surgical treatments for osteoarthritis include:
- Anti-inflammatory medication
Signs And Symptoms Of Polyarticular Jia
Polyarticular JIA is a type of arthritis that affects five or more joints during the first six months after diagnosis, per KidsHealth.org. It may start out as fewer than five affected joints, then increase, or it may first appear with five or more joints that are swollen or painful. They are typically on both sides of the body, including the knees and wrists. Polyarticular JIA can affect both large and small joints, according to the Arthritis Foundation.
Other symptoms can include:
- Inflammation in the lining of the heart or lungs
What Causes Osteoarthritis
For most people, joint damage can occur when otherwise healthy joints are exposed to heavy workloads over a long period of time. This leads to joint injuries due to repeated overuse. Frequently performing a particular task or sport or carrying around excess body weight can lead to osteoarthritis. Eventually the joint cartilage, the cushion at the ends of the bones, wears away. As a result, the bones rub together, causing a grating sensation.
Osteoarthritis often affects three main areas of your hand:
- the base of your thumb
- the joints closest to your fingertips
- the middle joints of your fingers
Your fingers may become stiff, painful and swollen and you may develop bumps on your finger joints. Over time, the pain may decrease and eventually disappear altogether, although the bumps and swelling can remain.
Your fingers may bend sideways slightly at your affected joints or you may develop painful cysts on the backs of your fingers.
In some cases, you may also develop a bump at the base of your thumb where it joins your wrist. This can be painful and you may find it difficult to perform some manual tasks, such as writing, opening jars or turning keys.
Page last reviewed: 19 August 2019 Next review due: 19 August 2022
What Is Knee Arthritis
Knee arthritis is inflammation and deterioration of knee joint cartilage. Cartilage is the slippery coating on the ends of bones that serves as a cushion and allows the knee to smoothly bend and straighten. Knee cartilage coats the end of the thighbone , top of the shinbone and the backside of the kneecap . When cartilage wears away, the space between the bones narrows. In advanced arthritis, bone rubs on bone and bone spurs may form.
Damage to the joint cartilage over time may result in the development or worsening of deformities of the knee, including knock knees and bowleg.
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Cracking Or Popping Sounds
When you bend or straighten your knee, you may feel a grinding sensation or hear cracking or popping sounds. Doctors call this crepitus.
These symptoms can occur when youve lost some of the cartilage that helps with smooth range of motion. Both OA and RA can result in cartilage damage.
When cartilage is damaged, rough surfaces and bone spurs develop. As you move your joints, these irregular areas rub against each other.
Signs And Symptoms Of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
The most common symptom of JIA is joint pain, with or without swelling, that develops over time and occurs along with joint stiffness after prolonged rest, such as when you first get up in the morning, says Yukiko Kimura, MD, chief of the division of pediatric rheumatology at the Joseph M. Sanzari Childrens Hospital in Hackensack, New Jersey, and a professor of pediatrics at Hackensack Meridian School of Medicine in Nutley, New Jersey.
Stiffness can last for a few minutes or for hours, says Dr. Kimura. In small children and babies, it might just cause them to be cranky and want to be picked up first thing in the morning, when previously they would get out of their crib about start crawling or walking. This stiffness typically gets better gradually as the day goes on.
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What Happens In Rheumatoid Arthritis
Doctors do not know why the immune system attacks joint tissues. However, they do know that when a series of events occurs, rheumatoid arthritis can develop. This series of events includes:
- A combination of genes and exposure to environmental factors starts the development of RA.
- The immune system may be activated years before symptoms appear.
- The start of the autoimmune process may happen in other areas of the body, but the impact of the immune malfunction typically settles in the joints.
- Immune cells cause inflammation in the inner lining of the joint, called the synovium.
- This inflammation becomes chronic, and the synovium thickens due to an increase of cells, production of proteins, and other factors in the joint, which can lead to pain, redness, and warmth.
- As RA progresses, the thickened and inflamed synovium pushes further into the joint and destroys the cartilage and bone within the joint.
- As the joint capsule stretches, the forces cause changes within the joint structure.
- The surrounding muscles, ligaments, and tendons that support and stabilize the joint become weak over time and do not work as well. This can lead to more pain and joint damage, and problems using the affected joint.
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What Does Arthritis In The Knee Feel Like
If you battle morning stiffness in your knee for longer than an hour, its an indicator that you could have inflammatory arthritis instead of osteoarthritis in your knee.
The pain of inflammatory arthritis is worse in the morning because its triggered by immobility, Dr. Domingues says. Motion alleviates the knee pain, so youll feel better as the day goes on.
The opposite is true for people with OA in their knees: They can experience a brief period of morning stiffness, but their knee pain is at its worst later in the day because long periods of activity exacerbate OA symptoms.
Even the type of knee pain is different. The pain of inflammatory arthritis comes from stiffness, whereas people with osteoarthritis describe sharp pains, Domingues explains. They say its almost like theres a foreign body in their knee, which is the sensation of bone rubbing on bone.
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What Are The Stages Of Arthritis Of The Knee
There are five stages of osteoarthritis, the most common type of arthritis that affects your knees:
- Stage 0 . If youre at stage 0, your knees are healthy. You dont have arthritis of the knee.
- Stage 1 . Stage 1 means that youve got some wear and tear in your knee joint. You probably wont notice pain.
- Stage 2 . The mild stage is when you might start to feel pain and stiffness, but theres still enough cartilage to keep the bones from actually touching.
- Stage 3 . If youre at the moderate stage, youll have more pain, especially when running, walking, squatting, and kneeling. Youll likely notice it after long periods of rest . You’re probably in a great deal of pain because the cartilage has narrowed even further and there are many bone spurs.
- Stage 4 . Severe osteoarthritis means that the cartilage is almost gone. Your knee is stiff, painful and possibly immobile. You might need surgery.
What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Arthritis Of The Knee
There are many signs and symptoms of arthritis of the knee:
- Creaking, clicking, grinding or snapping noises .
- Difficulty walking.
- Joint pain that changes depending on the weather.
- Joint stiffness.
- Knee joint pain that progresses slowly or pain that happens suddenly.
- Your knee locks or sticks when its trying to move.
Pain and swelling are the most common symptoms of arthritis of the knee. Some treatments might reduce the severity of your symptoms or even stall the progression. See your healthcare provider if you have symptoms of knee arthritis.
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What Is The Knee Joint
Three bones come together to form your knee joint. They include the:
A smooth substance called cartilage covers the ends of each bone. Its a cushion between the bones that keeps them from rubbing together. The synovial membrane, a type of tissue that surrounds the joint, lubricates the cartilage.
Arthritis of the knee causes pain and swelling in the joint
Limited Range Of Motion
Knee arthritis sometimes limits a persons range of motion so greatly that they need a cane or a walker to help them get around.
OA has such a significant effect on the bone and cartilage in the knee that it takes great effort to move your knee joints smoothly. Just walking or standing up can become difficult.
The pain and swelling associated with RA can also greatly affect someones ability to stand and walk.
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How Long Does It Take To Recover From A Knee Sprain
Knee sprain recovery time depends on the severity of your injury. If you have a Grade 1 sprain, your ligament stretches but doesnât tear. This injury will often heal in one to two weeks following proper at-home treatment.
A Grade 2 sprain occurs when you partially tear your ligament. It may take a month or longer to recover from this moderate injury.
You will likely have a longer recovery period if you need surgical reconstruction following a Grade 3 sprain. Surgical patients typically need crutches for 6 to 8 weeks following their procedure and may need to see a physical therapist for rehabilitation.
How Ra Affects Your Knees
In RA, your immune system attacks and damages the synovial cell lining of your joint. The synovial cell is the connective tissue that lines your joints. RA causes your synovial cells to increase, which causes thickening and inflammation. Its the same with RA in your knees:
Over time, the inflammation can damage the cartilage and ligaments of your knee joints. Along with synovial fluid, these help your knees move and keep your bones from grinding against each other.
As they become damaged, your cartilage wears away and exposes your bone. Bone, unlike cartilage, has pain receptors. As your bone is exposed, your bones start to push and grind against each other. This results in pain and bone damage.
Tissue damage from RA can led to chronic, or lasting, pain, affect your balance and steadiness, and change the appearance of your joints.
A hallmark symptom of RA is tenderness, pain, or joint discomfort that worsens when you stand, walk, or exercise. This is known as a flare. It can range from a mild, throbbing pain to intense, sharp pain.
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